What are the ways to treat contaminated water?According to experts from the World Health Organization (WHO), water can be contaminated with thirteen thousand elements of various toxicity. Hundreds of diseases can be transmitted through water. It is, therefore, no surprise that in some countries the number of people who die each year from contaminated water is measured in millions. The only way to make water guaranteed to be safe is through quality water treatment.
However, water can be contaminated with various impurities. Therefore, the way in which contaminated water is treated also varies considerably.
Types of contaminants
Conditionally, all impurities can be divided into four groups:
- Inorganic substances dissolved in water;
- Organic substances dissolved in water;
- Suspended particles.
It is not possible to determine the presence of contaminants in the water "by eye". To do this, send a water sample from your well, well or other water intake location to a special laboratory. There, experts will conduct appropriate tests to determine the presence and amount of contaminants. Based on the results of the tests, you can choose the optimal filters for water treatment in the USA.
Fighting with microorganisms
Microorganisms are present in almost every well or well. The only way to get rid of them is by special water treatment. However, the first thing to do is to determine the quantity and danger of these microorganisms. For this purpose, a special bacteriological analysis of water is performed. Modern equipment makes it possible to determine in the shortest possible time not only the contamination of water and its source but also to determine the exact number of microorganisms present in one milliliter of water.
To solve the problem of microorganisms, usually use special filters of reverse osmosis. When choosing these filters, be sure to pay attention to the size of the cells of the installation membrane. Only filters with membrane pore not larger than 0.2 micrometers can effectively eliminate microorganisms.
Inorganic dissolved substances
For detection of inorganic dissolved substances special measuring devices - mass spectrometers are used. During the test, the degree of electrical conductivity of water is determined. The lower the electrical conductivity, the less inorganic substances are dissolved in water.
Inorganic impurities can be removed by using reverse osmosis filters. In addition, this problem can be solved by distilling water.
Organic dissolved substances
It is this admixture that is considered the most common - it is found in almost any water. This can include organic synthetic compounds, proteins, acids, as well as products of decomposition of plant and animal residues. Due to a large number of different types of impurities, there is no universal method of water purification. Therefore, experts recommend the use of reverse osmosis units, ultraviolet lamps, or carbon filters.
This is where the tiniest particles of rust, sand, and clay are taken. The presence of these particles can be easily detected with the naked eye. Water poured into a large transparent container acquires a frankly muddy color in various shades. In order to obtain more accurate data (origin of particles and their quantity), it is necessary to analyze the turbidity of water. This is carried out with a turbidimeter.
In most cases, it is possible to solve the problem of suspended particles completely with the help of a drinking filter, the filtering membrane of which has a pore size not exceeding 20 micrometers.