Home water filters: features and advantages
Home Water Filters
The well-being of people depends to a large extent on the quality of their water. Unfortunately, it does not always conform to chemical and microbiological standards. This is especially true in industrial regions. Water filters can remedy the problem. Even the simplest water filtration system can improve water quality.
A matter of choice for home water filters.
The function of a drinking water filter is to remove pathogens, physical impurities and hazardous chemicals. Water differs from region to region in the type and amount of impurities. In addition, water from wells or boreholes is not the same as that supplied by the centralized apartment water supply system.
It is a known fact that even specialized equipment in water treatment plants cannot guarantee sufficient purity of the water. The fact is that the state of the water supply system leaves much to be desired, as the pipes have not been replaced for decades. Therefore, the installation of water filters in apartments is an objective necessity.
Classification of home water filters.
All network filtration systems are divided into the following categories.
- With mechanical filtration (these devices are equipped with a metal or plastic mesh). These are the simplest filters that retain insoluble impurities: dirt, rust, etc.
- Water filters for cartridge.
- With membrane filtration (ultrafiltration, nano, microfiltration, reverse osmosis devices).
- Combined options.
The specific choice depends on the quality of tap water, the presence of chemical impurities and contaminants, as well as the hardness of the water.
Water filter cartridges
One of the most common today are multi-stage filters, which use several types of purifying elements.
These devices provide a first, coarsest filtration. Without this stage, further filtration is simply useless. They are based on a fine mesh or foamed polymer layer, which retains particles in the range of 5 to 50 μm.
The principle of their operation is based on the property of individual substances to absorb impurities from the environment. The purpose of sorption devices is disinfection of water, its purification from mechanical and chemical impurities.
Ion exchange filters
The purpose of ion exchange cartridges of this type is to free the liquid from heavy metals. Synthetic ion exchange resins or sulfurized carbon are used for this purpose. Ion exchange cartridges are also a water softener.
The system consists of 2 or 3 treatment stages. In the first stage, the water is freed from mechanical impurities. The subsequent treatment process depends on the specific construction. Carbon or ion exchange resin cartridges can be used. Some models are enriched with silver. There are devices for improving water purification from chlorine and iron. All systems of this type belong to the flow and cartridge category. The removable element must be replaced after its service life has expired.
- Easy installation and replacement of elements.
- Quality of cleaning.
- Very efficient.
The continuous flow water filter of this type is not without disadvantages:
- Incomplete disinfection.
- Partial removal of hardness salts, fluorides, nitrates and manganese compounds.
Membrane filters for water
Provide the best and most complete purification of water.
Aqua filters are differentiated by the size of the membrane pores.
- Microfiltration - 0.02-4 microns.
- Ultrafiltration - 0,02-0,20 microns.
- Nanofiltration - 0.001-0.010 microns.
- Reverse osmosis devices - 0.0001-0.001 µm.
Of all the systems, the reverse osmosis filter is the most efficient. The main part of these devices is a membrane that purifies the water at the molecular level. In essence, the result is a distilled product with the highest degree of purity.
The water first passes through the three cartridges described above. This is only the initial step in its treatment. The membrane of the fourth cartridge allows the water and air molecules to pass through. The difficulty is that the purified product is devoid of all impurities, including beneficial ones. By the time it reaches the fifth unit, the water is saturated with essential minerals. Due to the small capacity of the system (the capacity per minute is 0.1-0.2 l), it enters the storage tank. The ready-to-drink water is then conveyed to a special tap or bioceramic cartridge for final treatment with infrared rays and a structuring electromagnetic field. This is the best filter against limescale.
The advantages of these systems are obvious.
However, there are also disadvantages:
- The need for a certain pressure in the pipes.
- Large installation dimensions.
- Relatively high cost.
- High water consumption.
Maintenance problems of water filters
Whatever water treatment system you choose, you have to follow certain rules. Otherwise, the use of systems with filters is meaningless.
- The replacement frequency of the mechanical treatment elements is 1 every 3-6 months. The specific time depends on the nominal time indicated by the manufacturer, the quality of the incoming liquid and the requirements of the water consumed.
- Carbon filter replacement interval: once every 12 months.
- The maintenance interval of the reverse osmosis system is once every six months.
- The service life of the reverse osmosis water filters is 10 years.
Descaling water filters
Special mention should be made of water filters for descaling. These filters are used to protect larger appliances. These filters are installed directly in front of the boiler, heater, washing machine or dishwasher. They are economical, compact and easy to maintain.
At the household level, there are two types of filters: polyphosphate and phosphate-free.
Polyphosphate filters cannot be used to filter drinking water. These solutions are used for boilers and washing machines.
Phosphate-free ones are used in washing machines, water heaters (boilers), dishwashers and heating boilers.
- effectively removes limescale and prevents its formation;
- prolongs the life of household appliances;
- No need to purchase additional expensive water softeners.
- Polyphosphate filter pollutes the environment;
- filters are only intended for the treatment of service water.